Baby-Toddler Noises

Vegetative Sounds

(Bodily Functions) Burps, hiccups, sneezes, gulps, reflexive grunting, etc.

Newborn: Typical development

In children later diagnosed with CAS, preliminary evidence (Overby and Caspari, 2013) suggests that there may be:

  • an unexplained continued appearance of vegetative sounds.


Fixed signals

(Recurring motor sequences that don’t vary across individuals) Laughs, cries, moans

8 months: Typical development

In children later diagnosed with CAS, preliminary evidence (Overby and Caspari, 2013) suggests that there may be:

  • possible extended use of fixed signals, and,

  • fewer sounds in children exhibiting more fixed signals.


Protophones

Purpose varies. Protophones are speech-like, but not "transcribable". These include quasivowels and marginal babbling.

4 Months: Typical development

12 Months: Typical development

In children later diagnosed with CAS, preliminary evidence (Overby and Caspari, 2013) suggests that:

  • protophones have similarities to and differences from typical children;

  • protophones tend to emerge when expected (first months);

  • protophones continues into the period when resonant productions (babbling) should emerge (i.e., 6-12 months);

  • protophones dominate at 14-16 months, when fully resonant productions should dominate.


Resonant Productions

Fully resonant productions are "transcribable". These include fully resonant vowels, resonant consonants, canonical babbling, true words.

14 Months: Typical development

Canonical Babbling: Typical development

Variegated Babbling: Typical development

In children later diagnosed with CAS, preliminary evidence (Overby and Caspari, 2013) suggests that there may be:

  • limited babbling, and in its place, reduced syllable shapes (dominated by vowels and CV);

  • lack of diversity in place, manner and voicing;

  • 'differences' in resonant productions at 2 years (compared to typically developing children);

  • volubility (amount of verbal output) is at around 1/3 to 1/5 that of typically developing children;

  • dependency on V and CV syllable structures with CVC absent.


Speech

Meaningful speech or made-up wordsž

24 months made-up words: Typical development

30 Months: Typical development


References

Bowen, C. (2015). Children's Speech Sound Disorders (2nd ed.). Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, page 82.

Overby, M. & Caspari, S. S. (2013). Observed Early Characteristics of CAS via Video Research. Paper presented to the CASANA Conference, Denver, Co.

Overby, M. & Caspari, S. S. (2015). Volubility, consonant, and syllable characteristics in infants and toddlers later diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech: Pilot study. Journal of Communication Disorders, 55, 44-62.