Worksheets: Long words

This resource page contains many examples of picture-and-word work sheets intended for use in speech-language pathology intervention.

The sheets were made in Microsoft Word, using copyright-free pictures from Microsoft Clip Art and Media and converted into portable document files (pdfs) with Adobe Acrobat.

The vocabulary represents (non-rhotic) Australian English pronunciation, and although most of the words and minimal pairs will 'work' in other dialects of English you may need to discard some. For example, pairs like saw-shore, and spa-star are minimal pairs in Australian English and in other non-rhotic varieties of English, but not in rhotic dialects such as Canadian, Irish, Scottish and most US 'Englishes'.

SLPs/SLTs and students are invited to use these worksheets and other resources when working with children with speech sound disorders. You are free to save them to your computer and to customize them to suit individual clients and to fit your service delivery model. Restrictions that apply to their use are stated in the copyright notice.

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ReST: Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment

The ReST treatment has been developed through a series of research studies. This research is ongoing, and the studies to date show that, when delivered as it was designed, with good fidelity, ReST treatment can improve the speech accuracy of children and young people with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). Information and resources can be found on the ReST website.

ReST Polysyllables 1 (M&D 1965) Symbols
ReST Polysyllables with Mitchell and Delbridge (1965) vowel symbols. Use this version with a separate record form.
Mitchell, A. G. & Delbridge, A. (1965). The pronunciation of English in Australia (revised edition). Angus & Robinson.

ReST Polysyllables 2 (No Phonetics—ADD YOUR OWN)
ReST Polysyllables with no phonemic transcription. This version has fields for you to write the target production, in your variety of English, and the client's production.

ReST Polysyllables 3 (M&D 1965 Symbols)
ReST Polysyllables with Mitchell and Delbridge (1965) vowel symbols.
Mitchell, A. G. & Delbridge, A. (1965). The pronunciation of English in Australia (revised edition). Angus & Robinson.

ReST Polysyllables 4 (HCE 1997 Symbols)
Record Form for ReST Polysyllables 4 (HCE 1997 Symbols)
ReST Polysyllables with Harrington, Cox and Evans (1997) vowel symbols for broad transcription of Australian English.
Harrington, J., Cox, F., & Evans, Z. (1997).An acoustic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian
English vowels, Australian Journal of Linguistics, 17(2), 155-184.

Vowel symbols for broad transcription of Australian English .pdf

Vowel symbols for broad transcription of Australian English .png

Australian English Mophthongs on the Macquarie University website | HCE cf. Mitchell and Delbridge

Long Words

Polysyllables 1

university nursery apartments escalator magician origami hospital tomato ambulance tambourine elephant W helicopter carnation Doberman photocopier spaghetti astronaut

Polysyllables 2

alphabet broccoli dinosaur Pentagon bicycle fire-extinguisher basketball satellite avocado dictionary casserole hammerhead volcano accordion chandelier calendar watermelon supermarket

Polysyllables 3

caterpillar tape-measure orchestra motorbike rattlesnake hippopotamus ballerina caravan electrician pineapple macramé hairdresser unicycle calculator Nefertiti octopus excavator balaclava

Polysyllables 4

computer geranium entertainer detergent zucchini vaccination synthesizer exclamation honeycomb rhinoceros letterbox cauliflower kookaburra potato cheeseburger butterfly locomotive Saturday

Polysyllables 5

grasshopper Australia saxophone cucumber President injury screwdriver wallaby karaoke nasturtium equestrian fire-engine photographer marshmallow noticeboard rehearsal aquarium cinema

Polysyllables 6

geography terminal manicure autograph accident harvester architect refrigerator family unicorn mercury tourniquet celebration dishwasher wallpaper crocodile gallery telescope

Polysyllables 7

library envelope  decorations animal passengers trampoline chimpanzee competition recycling banana cinnamon magnolia safari newspaper pillow-fight minibus strawberry coriander

Polysyllables 8

utensils ceremony commuters imagination microwave rocking-horse conditioner detective operation microscope explorers potholder emergency binoculars concertina television punctuation spectacles

Polysyllables 9

conductor wheelbarrow alligator punishment telephone radiator elevator kimono stethoscope armadillo passionfruit tiddlywinks bikini colander pedestrian Cinderella champion magazine

Polysyllables 10

kangaroo anorak harmonica apricot flamingo buttonhole pyjamas cafeteria triangle gooseberries Pinocchio material pelican Colosseum underpants receptionist examination cereal

Polysyllables 11

pantomime skyscraper deerstalker Thoroughbred bitumen rectangle pigeonholes sou’wester cuttlefish Rapunzel bandages Dalmatian minaret lemonade porcupine candelabra 70 daffodil

Polysyllables 12

goanna poinsettia marathon xylophone composer ornament domino paediatrician cockatoo dinner-jacket jellyfish lollipop koala advertisements celery neopolitan director hexagon

Polysyllables 13

loudspeaker sugarcane percolator echidna safety-pin tuxedo manuscript perspiration medicine duffel-bag India currency miniature influenza chocolate eye-shadow comedian albatross

Polysyllables 14 - Australia

Australia Western Australia Northern Territory South Australia Queensland New South Wales Canberra Victoria Tasmania kangaroo wallaby echidna koala kookaburra cockatoo lorikeet rosella currawang bowerbird willy-wagtail peach-face platypus bilby Tasmanian-devil wombat dingo bandicoot billabong dot-painting Christmas-beetle witchetty-grub funnel-web crocodile goanna monitor carpet-python copperhead waratah grevillea boronia flannel-flower bottle-brush Geraldton-wax

Polysyllables 14 - Canada

Canada Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador North West Territories Nova Scotia Nunavut Ontario Prince Edward Island Québec Saskatchewan Yukon nanaimo bar CBC  fiddlehead maple leaf  Canadians garburator humidex maple syrup loonie polar bear grizzly bear Talahan Bear Dog ogopogo harlequin ducks woodpecker caribou Canada goose blueberries strawberries blackberries cloudberries raspberries gooseberries tuckamore snarbuckle bannikin bedlamer faffering bakeapple pemmican

Polysylables 14 - Ireland

Ireland Irish flag colcannon leprechaun water spaniel bluebell white-fronted goose Celtic cross St Patrick soda bread rhododendron potato bread Jack Russell terrier countryside famine wall sanvitalia (Irish eyes)

Polysyllables 14 - Malaysia (large file)

Malaysia elephant orang-utan crocodile buffalo butterfly centipede millipede firefly caterpillar mosquito rambutan pineapple mata-kucing durian mangosteen papaya dragon-fruit carambola rafflesia hibiscus bunga-telang frangipani proboscis-monkey silver-hair-monkey alligator Malaysian-coral-snake hornbill-bird flowerpecker  Deepavali (Depawali, Dipavali, Dewali, Diwali, Divali, Dipotsavi, Dipapratipad) Thaipusam Hari-Raya Lunar-New-Year Vaisakhi-Day (Baisakhi-Day) Chap-Goh-Meh

Polysyllables 14 - South Africa

South Africa South African flag impala protea koeksisters elephant rhinoceros hippopotamus buffalo gecko zebra nyala kudu wildebeest vervet monkey crocodile water monitor clivia jacaranda gazania strelitzia bromeliad polygala bobotie bunny chow lemon papaya banana mango beadwork telephone wire baskets Ndebele dolls warthog musicians teething beads

Polysylables 14 - United Kingdom

United Kingdom Union Jack Westminster Beefeater Windsor Castle highland dancers Ring of Brodgar Edinburgh Castle Border Collie hammer thrower birdwatcher Giants Causeway Mountains of Mourne potato bread flower of flax Atlantic Ocean kingfisher Welsh corgi laverbread daffodil bara brith hearlequin duck eisteddfod Stonehenge Westminster Bridge gooseberries strawberries BBC Queens’ Regiment bacon butty fish and chips bangers and mash spotted dick William Shakespeare liquorice allsorts

Polysyllables 15 - Iambic onset: weak syllable strong syllable ... (WS...)

umbrella banana apartments koala tomato echidna amazing astonishing exciting achievement thermometer asparagus potato pyjamas bananas spaghetti police car refrigerator construction bikini safari precipitation graffiti accordion computer macramé propeller geranium detergent zucchini nasturtium equestrian photographer magician conductor  electrician commuters detective pedestrian composer director producer rehearsal emergency aquarium Pinocchio material binoculars Rapunzel impala flamingo gazania bromeliad papaya boronia Canadians  St Patrick orang utan flotilla prescription skedaddle delicious adventurous imaginative

Trochaic Sequences

Trochees 1

helicopter, locomotive, caterpillar, watermelon, kookaburra, motorcycle, grand piano, alligator, mashed potato, Easter Bunny, creepy crawly, cheeky monkey, clever puppy, birthday present, picking apples, big banana, camel rider, ballerina, taxi driver, soccer player, under water, hula dancer, television, Humpty Dumpty, finger painting, escalator

Trochees 2

letterboxes, tiger lily, very windy, scary monster, service station, stripy tiger, hungry kitty, cosy jacket, clever lady, aviator, tractor driver, unicycle, shopping basket, stacking boxes, supermarket, calculator, shopping trolley, nice tomatoes, laundry basket, rubber duckie, pillowcases, dictionary, competition, excavator, chocolate crackles, agapanthus, Persian carpet, Cookie Monster, grand piano, tiny pencil

Trochees 3

pencil sharpener, birthday candles, tape recorder, suit of armour, asthma puffer, graduation, Viking helmet, Hello Kitty, pressure cooker, motor scooter, airline pilot, ballroom dancing, table tennis, ten pin bowling, table tennis, exercising, scuba diving, entertainer, ballerina, hula dancer, opera singer, film director, portrait painter, carpet  layer, fortune teller, respirator, coffee maker, vacuum cleaner, concertina

Trochees 4

ukulele, movie camera, tennis player, toilet paper, salad sandwich, bunch of roses, fortune cookie, apple blossom, window cleaner, paper hanger, teeter totter, vaccination, milk and cookies, bunch of daisies, station wagon, music teacher, salad dressing, taxi driver, glass of water, education, swimming lesson, synthesizer, stormy weather, consultation, swimming teacher, exclamation, animation, plastic bottle, four-leaf clover, end of freeway

Word final schwa

schwa word finally 1: Non-rhotic varieties of English: word final schwa #1

grasshopper caterpillar woodpecker spider tiger panther koala gopher beaver otter alligator lobster llama boxer banana guava pizza hamburger cola tortilla pepper cucumber America Georgia Iowa California Minnesota Louisiana Alabama Arizona Montana Florida Indiana Alaska Oklahoma Virginia South Dakota Nebraska South Carolina West Virginia North Carolina Pennsylvania North Dakota North America South America Africa Australia Asia Canada soccer player pitcher basketballer catcher skier swimmer diver bowler server fencer archer weight lifter

schwa word finally 2: Non-rhotic varieties of English: word final schwa #2 (occupations)

painter dancer tailor builder singer doctor cleaner presenter bull fighter exterminator waiter construction worker teacher photographer sister dog trainer dressmaker interviewer driver shopper director barber welder window cleaner bricklayer roofer carpenter carpet layer concreter glazier


/h/ Syllable Initial Word Initial - polysyllables

hippopotamus holiday Halloween Himalayas hairdresser hydrogen handkerchief harmonica horrible headmaster headmistress headquarters hexagon helicopter hilarious hollyhock honeycomb hospital housekeeper horseradish horticulture hydrangea housewarming Humpty Dumpty

'-ing' words

ng Syllable Final Word Final - 'ing-words'

pulling looking eating guessing feeding sitting playing mixing riding watering blowing feeding building holding dressing balancing listening saving see-sawing skipping cutting drumming singing talking running hiding finding hopping skate-boarding swinging dancing reading crying picking squirting tying brushing collecting vacuuming sneezing drinking hanging marching knitting skating jumping folding tickling fishing climbing relaxing sliding skiing diving kicking finishing smelling drawing floating recycling jumping throwing making giving pretending toasting picnicking dancing cart-wheeling selling sailing walking

Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP)

Sonority is the amount of stricture or ‘sound’ in a consonant or vowel (Roca & Johnson, 1999). Steriade (1990) proposed a numerical sonority hierarchy: a list of phones, ordered according to degree of oral stricture and sound. Most sonorous are vowels (= 0), then glides (=1), liquids (= 2), nasals (= 3), voiced fricatives (= 4), voiceless fricatives (=5), voiced stops (=6) and finally the voiceless stops (=7) are least sonorant.


We prefer to articulate words with a rise and fall in sonority. For example, in 'tramp' we start with the least sonorous segment (voiceless stop /t/) then liquid /r/ with the vowel /æ/ at the peak, then the less sonorous nasal /m/, finally falling to the least sonorous voiceless stop /p/. This comes more ‘naturally’ to us than 'rtapm', for example, even though the segments are the same. This rise-then-fall tendency is called the sonority sequencing principle or SSP. 

Consonant clusters are more marked than singletons, but are some clusters more marked than others? One approach to classifying two-element consonant clusters according to markedness is to rank them according to their sonority difference score, using their numerical values from a sonority hierarchy (Ohala, 1999). For example, /kw/ (7 minus 1) has a sonority difference score of 6, whereas /fl/ (5 minus 2) scores 3. Clusters with SMALL sonority differences of 2, 3 or 4 may better promote generalised change to singletons and clusters. Gierut (1999), Gierut & Champion (2001), and Morrisette, Farris & Gierut (2006) provide evidence and target selection guidelines. 

Click here for pictures and (mainly) monosyllabic words with 3-element clusters and the more marked 2-element clusters. Below you will find long words that start with clusters and adjuncts.

Targeting the 3-element Clusters

Prior knowledge of the second element and the third element is required.

The 3-element consonant clusters, /spr/ /str/ /skr/ /spl/ and /skw/ should only be targeted if the child already has the relevant stop (/p/, /t/ or /k/) and the relevant liquid (/l/) or glide (/w/) present in his or her phonemic inventory. For example, if targeting /skw/ the child should have productive knowledge of /k/ and /w/, but does not need to have productive knowledge of /s/.

Targeting the 2-element Clusters

Prior knowledge of the first element and/or the second element is not required.

The 2-element clusters, /sm, /sn/, /fl/ etc. can be targeted irrespective of whether the child has previous knowledge of either or both of the two elements. For example, in targeting /sl/ the child may or may not have previous knowledge of /s/ and/or /l/.

Long words starting with /spr/, /str/, /skr/, /spl/ and /skw/

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 1

springboard spray-paint sprinkler straightjacket streetlight strawberry strongroom streamers stratosphere stretcher scribble scrunchie scrambled-eggs scrapbook splinter splashes splutter squabble squeamish squeegee squirrel squiggle

Long words starting with /sm/ and /sn/

Sonority Difference = 2

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 2

smithereens smokestack smelly smidgen smoothie smarty-pants snack-bar sniffle snazzy snooker snowball snorkeler snippets

Long words starting with /fl/,  /fr/, /θr/, /sl/ and /ʃr/

Sonority Difference = 3

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 3

flabbergasted flagpole flashlight flat-mates flavourings flourmill fleabag floodlight floorboards flower-shop flotilla flywheel fragrance fraction fruit-shop frankfurter freckles freebie freezer frogman frosting fragment fracture framework thresher three-hundred thriller throttle threadbare threshold sleepwalker slowcoach sluicegate slaphappy sleigh-bells slapstick shrubbery shrunken shredder

Long words starting with /bl/, /br/, /dr/, /ɡl/, /ɡr/ and /sw/

Sonority Difference = 4

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 4

blindfold blackboard blizzard blender blister blackberry blanket blood-donor bleeper blinkers blueberry breakwater bracelet bridegroom bracket breakfast branches broomstick bricklayer brolly driver drainhole driftwood dredger drawbridge dresser drapery drawstring dry-cleaner dressmaker drumstick drizzle

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 5

glacier glitter glassware glutton globetrotter glockenspiel graduation greasepaint grotto grader griddle greenhouse graffiti grindstone greyhound grandparents graveyard grapevine grassland gravel groundsheet sweatband swallow swimmer swami sweater sweetheart swimsuit swagman swampland swap-meet sweetener

Long words starting with /pl/, /pr/, /tr/, /kl/, /kr/, /tw/, and /kw/

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 6

planet plumber plantation platter plughole plaster playgroup protester precipice prickle prodigy precipitation princess producer preschool principal project prescription printer propeller present prisoner President prizewinner prospector tricycle trawler treadmill transmitter trophy traffic trumpeter treasure trampoline triangle trapeze trellis triplets

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 7

clothing clairvoyant cloudburst cleaner cloverleaf clapper clockwork classroom cloisters clotheshorse clutter klaxon crockery cranium criminal crocodile crayon crustacean cricketer crescent crusader crosspatch crisscross croquet cruiser cryptographer twilight twiglet twister twinset Twitter Tweedle-dum Tweedle-dee quartet quadrangle quarter quagmire choirmaster question-mark qualifications quarrel quintet quicksand quarry quizmaster

Long words starting with /sp/, /st/ and /sk/

Clusters (ADJUNCTS) SIWI in Polysyllables 8

spaceship speaker spectacles speedometer sportswear spoonful storyteller steamroller stadium staircase studio steamer stable stethoscope standpipe stomachache steeplechase storeroom stargazer sterilizer stirrup statue student stowaway skyrocket sketchbook scoreboard skullduggery scaffolding schoolteacher skinflint scarecrow scooter scavenger scholar skullcap skateboard skeleton scullery skedaddle

Aviator oyna cox olk?l?rd? h?r gun daha cox populyarlasan maraql? pul oyunudur. Sad?liyi v? yuks?k qazanma nisb?ti il? cox qumarbaz?n ur?yini qazand?.